Peer Reviewed Publications

Peer-reviewed science, medical, and public health journal publications that are authored by Center staff and/or related to the Center’s work

Statements and Guidelines Archive

Search and browse the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association’s published medical guidelines and scientific statements about cardiovascular disease and stroke topics. The statements are supported by scientific studies published in recognized journals and have a rigorous review and approval process.

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Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Characteristics Are Associated With Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Pediatric Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States (2019)

Using the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) national database, this study further elucidates the relationship of the race/ethnicity of cardiac arrest victims and neighborhood characteristics with bystander CPR provision for children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Download the Bystander CPR PDF

Effect of Access to Prescribed PCSK9 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Outcomes (2019)

Using a large comprehensive healthcare database, this propensity score-matched cohort study estimated the effects of paid coverage for PCSK9i prescriptions compared with prescription rejection and prescription abandonment on cardiovascular outcomes.

Download the Prescribed PCSK9 Inhibitors PDF

Cost-Effectiveness of the US Food and Drug Administration Added Sugar Labeling Policy for Improving Diet and Health (2019)

This study presents results from a microsimulation model–based evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration policy requiring changes to the Nutrition Facts label to include “added sugars.” The analysis considers the impact of the label change on consumers’ consumption of added sugar, as well as the impact of the labeling policy on potential industry reformulation of food products.

Download the FDA Added Sugar Labeling Policy PDF

Years of Potential Life Lost Because of Cardiovascular Disease in Asian‐American Subgroups, 2003–2012 (2019)

This study examines the years of potential life lost because of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among the 6 largest Asian‐American subgroups in the U.S., compared with non‐Hispanic whites.

Download the Years of Potential Life Lost PDF

2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (2019)

This guideline consolidates recommendations for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic CVD into a comprehensive document. It includes recommendations related to aspirin use, tobacco use, nutrition and diet, exercise and physical activity, assessment of social determinants of health, team-based care, shared decision-making, and other factors that affect CVD risk.

Download the 2019 ACC/AHA Prevention Guidelines PDF

2019 Guideline Highlights PDF 2019 Slide Set PDF

Disability-Adjusted Life Years Following Adult Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States (2019)

This study estimates the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and compares those DALY to other leading causes of death and disability in the US.

Download the Disability-Adjusted Life Years PDF

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2019 Update (2019)

This annual update compiles the latest available national statistics on heart disease and stroke morbidity, mortality and risks; quality of care; medical procedures and operations; and costs associated with disease management. This year’s edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, a new chapter on sleep, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, an expanded focus on the global burden of CVD, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the AHA’s 2020 Impact Goals.

Download the Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2019 PDF

2019 Fact Sheet PDF 2019 Infographic PDF

Call to Action: Urgent Challenges in Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association (2019)

This Call to Action describes trends in cardiovascular care, identifies gaps in areas of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, highlights challenges with medical product innovation, and outlines efforts to help develop road maps for transforming cardiovascular care.

Download the Urgent Challenges in Cardiovascular Disease PDF

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans From the US Department of Health and Human Services (2018)

The American Heart Association is adopting the 2018 physical activity guidelines published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) which were announced on Monday, November 12, 2018. This article summarizes the guidelines and their associated cardiovascular benefits and recommendations.

Download the Physical Activity Guidelines PDF

2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/ NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol (2018)

This guideline is a full update of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline. It addresses the practical management of patients with high blood cholesterol and related disorders. Recommendations are based on the best available evidence from randomized controlled trials of cholesterol-lowering therapies and other sources of evidence.

2018 Cholesterol Guideline PDF

Top 10 Things to Know PDF Executive Summary PDF
Systematic Review PDF Fact Sheet PDF Slide Set PDF

Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial of FAITH (Faith-Based Approaches in the Treatment of Hypertension) in Blacks (2018)

A church-based program to encourage a healthy lifestyle lowered systolic blood pressure more than an educational program alone delivered in other churches, according to the FAITH trial.

Download the Clinical Trial of FAITH in Blacks PDF

County‐Level Hispanic Ethnic Density and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality (2018)

This study examines the impact of county-level Hispanic ethnic population density on cardiovascular disease mortality. The analysis uses data from the National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death mortality files for 2003 to 2012.

Download the Hispanic CVD Mortality PDF

Dietary Diversity: Implications for Obesity Prevention in Adult Populations: A Science Advisory from the American Heart Association (2018)

This advisory summarizes definitions for dietary diversity and reviews current evidence on its relationship with obesity outcomes, eating behavior, and food-based diet quality measures.

Download the Dietary Diversity PDF

Sedentary Behaviors in Today’s Youth: Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity (2018)

This Scientific Statement provides a modern perspective on sedentary behavior and its relationship to obesity and other cardiometabolic outcomes in youth, especially adolescents.

Download the Sedentary Behaviors PDF

Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages and Cardiometabolic Health: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association (2018)

This advisory reviews evidence from observational studies and clinical trials assessing the cardiometabolic outcomes of low-calorie sweetened beverages.

Download the Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages PDF

Obesity Prevalence Among Adults Living in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties — United States, 2016 (2018)

This CDC study examines state-level 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to measure the prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults living in nonmetropolitan counties versus metropolitan counties.

Download the Obesity Prevalence PDF

Trends in Healthcare Expenditures Among US Adults With Hypertension: National Estimates, 2003-2014 (2018)

This study examines the estimated annual healthcare expenditures for individual patients with hypertension, as well as nation-wide healthcare costs associated with hypertension.

Download the Trends in Healthcare Expenditures PDF

Twenty‐Year Trends in the American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health Score and Impact on Subclinical and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: The Framingham Offspring Study (2018)

The decrease in the percentage of people with ideal cardiovascular health over the past 20 years resulted in higher odds of underlying disease and risk of cardiovascular disease and death, emphasizing the importance of maintaining ideal cardiovascular health over the life course.

Download the Twenty‐Year Trends PDF

Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on Life Expectancies in the U.S. Population (2018)

This analysis quantifies the positive impact of a healthy lifestyle on reducing premature mortality and prolonging life expectancy in U.S. adults.

Download the Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors PDF

The Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Among U.S. States, 1990-2016 (2018)

This study published in JAMA Cardiology uses the Global Burden of Disease methodology to quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016, as well as risk factors driving these changes. Large disparities in the total burden of CVD were found between U.S. states despite marked improvements in CVD burden.

Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases PDF

Estimating the Health and Economic Effects of the Proposed U.S. Food and Drug Administration Voluntary Sodium Reformulation: Microsimulation Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (2018)

Co-authored by Centers collaborator Laurie Whitsel, Ph.D., this study quantifies the potential health and economic impact of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed voluntary sodium reduction goals targeting processed and commercially prepared foods.

Download the Voluntary Sodium Reformulation PDF

Projected Costs of Informal Caregiving for Cardiovascular Disease: 2015 to 2035: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association (2018)

Previous estimates of medical costs and productivity losses of CVD did not include the costs of family, informal, or unpaid caregiving provided to patients with CVD. This analysis estimated projections of costs of informal caregiving attributable to CVD for 2015 to 2035.

Projected Costs Policy Statement PDF

Association of Birthplace and Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Among US Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2006 to 2014 (2018)

The proportion of foreign‐born U.S. adults has almost tripled since 1970. This study compares the prevalence of coronary heart disease and stroke among U.S. adults by birthplace.

Birthplace and Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke PDF

Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer: Where These Entities Intersect: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (2018)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women, yet many people perceive breast cancer to be the number one threat to women’s health. This statement provides a comprehensive overview of the prevalence of these diseases, shared risk factors, the cardiotoxic effects of therapy, and the prevention and treatment of CVD in breast cancer patients.

Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer PDF

2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke (2018)

This guideline serves as a comprehensive recommendation resource for the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke, from symptom onset in the prehospital setting through 2 weeks post-stroke.

2018 Guideline PDF

Which US States Pose the Greatest Threats to Military Readiness and Public Health? Public Health Policy Implications for a Cross-sectional Investigation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Injuries Among US Army Recruits (2018)

Co-authored by Centers collaborator Laurie Whitsel, Ph.D., the purpose of this study was to investigate state-level distributions of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and injuries among US Army recruits in order to determine the potential impact on military readiness and national security.

Greatest Threats to Military Readiness PDF

Childhood and Adolescent Adversity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (2017)

This statement reviews the scientific literature regarding the influence of childhood adversity on cardiometabolic outcomes that constitute the greatest public health burden in the United States, including obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Childhood Adversity Statement PDF Top 10 Things to Know PDF

2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults (2017)

This guideline is an update of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute publication, “The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure” (JNC 7) and is a comprehensive resource for the clinical and public health practice communities.

2017 Guideline PDF

Top 10 Things to Know PDF Detailed Summary PDF Fact Sheet PDF

Potential U.S. Population Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Guideline (2017)

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among US adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) guidelines.

Potential U.S. Population Impact PDF

Presidential Advisory: American Heart Association Principles on the Accessibility and Affordability of Drugs and Biologics (2017)

This advisory examines potential explanations behind rising prices in the drug and biologic markets, and establishes principles to guide the Association’s engagement in advocating for treatments, including medicines that are available, affordable and accessible to patients.

Presidential Advisory PDF

Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association (2017)

This statement profiles the overall cardiovascular health of African Americans, including an overview of the burden of cardiovascular disease; a discussion of the genetic and biological factors that might contribute to cardiovascular disease; how traditional risk factors and adverse health behaviors affect the disparities between African Americans and whites; and medical treatments and the social, cultural and environmental factors that influence prevention and disease management in African Americans.

Cardiovascular Health in African Americans PDF

Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (2017)

This scientific statement provides an analysis of the opportunities and the challenges faced in context of the ongoing battle against cardiovascular diseases and highlights the return on investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. Continued research on mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression and therapeutic intervention are needed for making lifesaving advances.


Poststroke Fatigue PDF

Workplace Programs, Policies, and Environmental Supports to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease (2017)

Co-authored by Centers staff, this article provides a preliminary snapshot of how the comprehensiveness of workplace cardiovascular health initiatives is related to measures of employees’ health risks, disease prevalence, and medical expenditures.

Workplace Programs, Policies, and Environmental Supports to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease PDF

Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (2016)

This document is a pediatric-focused companion to “Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association’s Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond.” It emphasizes the 7 fundamental principles that define CV health in children for the clinical or research setting. The principles detailed in the document reflect the AHA’s dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course.


Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children PDF

Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes for Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (2015)

The purpose of this statement is to increase awareness of the influence of social factors – such as race, income, education, and environment – on the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of CVD; to summarize the current state of knowledge about these factors; and to suggest future directions in research, particularly research on effective interventions to attenuate or eliminate these adverse social influences.


Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes for Cardiovascular Disease PDF

Workplace Wellness Recognition for Optimizing Workplace Health: A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association (2015)

Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. This advisory issues a set of recommendations to optimize workplace health using a common set of measures to recognize workplace health programs.

Source: Circulation

Workplace Wellness Recognition for Optimizing Workplace Health PDF

Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association’s Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond (2010)

This document sets forth the AHA’s 2020 Impact Goal (“To improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20%, while reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%, by 2020”) and defines the concept of cardiovascular health. It identifies the metrics needed to monitor cardiovascular health over time, which will measure achievement of the Impact Goal.


2020 Goals PDF