Social support may reduce heart, stroke effects of discrimination in transgender and gender non-conforming adults

Billy A. Caceres Ph.D. R.N. Assistant professor, Program for the Study of LGBT Health, The Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York

American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, Oral Presentation 123

Higher levels of social support may help offset increased heart disease and stroke risk factors triggered by discrimination and gender expectations among transgender and gender non-conforming adults, according to preliminary research to be presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2019 — November 16-18 in Philadelphia. The Association’s Scientific Sessions is an annual, premier global exchange of the latest advances in cardiovascular science for researchers and clinicians.

Researchers examined the link to discrimination in day-to-day life, such as job discrimination, difficulty finding housing and being threatened or harassed — and internalized transphobia (internalizing societal gender expectations and/or feeling shame towards one’s own gender identity) and behaviors known to influence heart disease risk, such as tobacco use, drinking, low levels of physical activity, sleeping too little and being overweight or obese.

Participants included 288 adults (half assigned as female at birth, average age 34) taking part in Project AFFIRM, a three-city, long-term study of health in people who identify as transgender and gender non-conforming (those with gender identities outside the conventional notion of male or female).

Researchers found:
  • Higher levels of discrimination and internalized transphobia were linked with higher rates of risky drinking and lower sleep duration.
  • However, greater levels of social support raised the odds of getting enough sleep by half, increased odds of getting adequate exercise by almost a third and weakened the link between discrimination and sleep duration.

Hormone use did not influence heart disease and stroke risk factors in this study. While previous studies have found hormone use to be associated with higher rates of clot-caused strokes in transgender women than in non-transgender women, this study analyzed risk factors rather than the occurrence of heart attacks or strokes.

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